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The types of attacks documented by Education under Attack 2014 include killings, disappearance, abduction, forced exile, imprisonment, torture, and maiming, military use of schools and universities, laying of landmines around schools, and destruction of educational buildings and materials. They also include sexual violence and recruitment and use of child soldiers, where it is part of a political, military, or sectarian attack on students or education personnel at or on the way to or from an educational institution.
The UN Secretary-General’s most recent report on children and armed conflict, released in May 2013, documents direct physical damage to schools, closure of schools as a result of threats and intimidation, and use of schools by state or non-state armed groups as military barracks, weapons storage facilities, command centers, detention and interrogation sites and firing and observation positions in armed conflicts across the globe. The UN Security Council has also expressed deep concern about recurrent attacks or threats of attack against schools and education facilities, teachers and pupils.
These attacks violate the right to education enshrined in key international human rights treaties. They may also violate international humanitarian and criminal law and constitute war crimes or crimes against humanity during war or peacetime. The use of education institutions by security forces and other armed groups may place students and educators at risk of attack.
The short and long term impacts can be devastating. The immediate effects can include death, injury, and the destruction of educational facilities, together with disrupted access to education. In the long term, attacks can lead to diminished education quality, loss of teachers and academics, weakened educational systems and create a culture of impunity. The relevance of higher education can be degraded and research, academic freedom and innovation curtailed. Weakened education adversely affects a country’s economic, political and social development, as well as its civil society.